Acaulescent; rhizome elongate, covered with persistent lf- bases; lvs at anthesis broadly cordate-ovate, 2-3 cm, nearly as wide, finely undulate-crenate, their petioles with crisp hairs often extending onto the lower part of the blade; blades enlarging in summer to 5-12 cm, orbicular- ovate, with strongly cordate base and overlapping basal lobes; fls developing with the lvs, on rather short peduncles, bright yellow, the 2 lateral pet bearded, the 3 lower with brown veins; style clavate and abruptly capitate; cleistogamous fls on short, lfless stolons, appearing racemose; fr ellipsoid, 5-8 mm; seeds ivory; 2n=12. Deep, rich, usually coniferous woods; se. Que. and Me. to sw. Ont., s. to Pa., N.J., Del., and along the mts. to S.C. and Ga. Apr., May.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.